Capital : Dar es Salaam
Size: 365 000 sq m Popn: 27 829 000
Aru Meru, Arusha, Bagamoyo, Bariadi, Biharamulo, Bukoba, Chunya, Dodoma, Geita, Hai, Igunga, Ileje, Kagera, Kahama, Karagwe, Kasulu, Kibondo, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kilosa, Iringa, Iramba, Kisarawe, Kiteto, Mara, Masasi, Manyoni, Liwale, Maswa, Magu, Lushoto, Luduwe, Kilwa, Kondoa, Lindi, Kwimba, Mbeya, Mbinga, Mbozi, Mbulu, Monduli, Morogoro, Moshi, Mpanda, Muheza, Mpwapwa, Mufindi, Muleba, Musamo, Mwanza, Nachingwea, Newala, Ngara, Njombe, Nzega, Pangani, Pare, Pwani, Rufiji, Rukwa, Rungwe, Ruvuma, Sengerema, Urambo, Ukerewe, Ulanga, Serengeti, Shinyanga, Singida, Songea, Sumbawanga, Tanga, Tabora, Tundwu, Rize
From the first century A.D. the mainland, Tanganyika, was dominated by Arab traders, especially those from the Sultanate of Kilwa from the C11th to the C15th. Vasco da Gama's arrival in 1498 led to a century of Portuguese influence and Portuguese/Arab conflict in the C17th and C18th. In 1832 the Sultan of Muscat moved his capital to Zanzibar and established slave-trading centres. When the Protectorate of German East Africa was proclaimed over Tanganyika, Burundi and Rwanda in 1885, many of the interior tribes were still living in hunter-gatherer style. British and Belgian forces took over the territory in 1916-7 and under the 1919 League of Nations mandate Britain took over Tanganyika which became self-governing under Prime Minister Julius Nyerere in 1961 and a Republic under him in 1962.
The islands of Zanzibar, Pemba and Latham were controlled by South-West Arabia in the early Christian era, Portuguese influence was strong in the C16th but by the C17th power was passing to the Turks and Arabs from Oman. Zanzibar became independent of Muscat and Oman and was a thriving centre of the slave and ivory trades by 1860. The Sultanate of Zanzibar was declared a British protectorate in 1890 and full independence with the Sultan as head of state came in 1963 only to be overthrown after a month.
Abeid Karume's revolutionary council took control and retained the Presidency under Nyerere after Tanganyika and Zanzibar formed the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964.. In 1979, Nyerere supported the Uganda National Liberation Front as it overthrew Idi Amin and liberation movements in Rhodesia and Mozambigue and although this gave him a good reputation, it proved economically damaging. He retired in 1985, remaining chairman of the single party, the Revolutionary Party of Tanzania, until 1990 and was succeeded by Ali Hassan Mwinyi in both roles. There was very little opposition but tension between Zanzibar and the mainland was particularly strong under Karume's 1964-72 regime although this quietened under Jumbe (1972-84), and improved under Mwinyi (1984-5). Idris Abdul Wakil succeeded him when he became president in 1985.
The 120+ Bantu tribes of Tanzania tend to be friendly to each other and civil war seems to have been avoided so far. There are also some Shirazi and Arab people. English and Swahili are both official languages and Islam and Christianity are the religions.
This collection of names was compiled by Kate Monk and is ©1997, Kate Monk.
Copies may be made for personal use only.
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