Roman Religion

The native Roman gods or numina (sing. numen) had no face or mythology but were spiritual forces. The word 'numinous' is derived from them although 'numen' literally meant 'a divinity'. Later Greek influence was very strong with the Greek pantheon being adopted by Rome and some of the numina were given a form, gender and name.

The Capitoline Triad

Jupiter (Jove) Dius Fidius

Optimus Maximus - best and greatest

J. Stator - the Stayer

J. Latiaris


king of gods

gave soldiers courage to fight

Latin Jupiter

Juno Juno Moneta - warnings

Juno Lucina

sacred geese



Aquilo North wind  
Bacchus Wine  
Bonus Eventus Good luck  
Castor and Pollux 'Dioscuri' twin sons of Leda and Jupiter
Cupid/Amor Love  
Faunus Flocks  
Hercules Musarum


Janus Beginnings  
Janus Patulcius Opening of doors  
Janus Clusivius Closing of doors  
Liber Pater Vine Greek Bacchus
Lucifer Light bringer (Venus)  
Mars war, agriculture  
Mercury Messenger Greek Hermes
Mithras Persian sun god popular with legions
Monoeceus Herakles  
Morpheus Sleep  
Neptune Sea  
Nodens Healing  
Orcus   Greek Hades
Pales Flocks and herds  
Palicus Sicilian god/hero  
Picus Woodpecker Mars of Picentum
Pilumnus Spearman  
Pluto/Dis Underworld  
Portunus Harbours  
Quirinus Quirinal hill identified with Mars
Saturn Agriculture wealth? Greek Cronus
Semo Sancus Dius Fidius Divine good faith  
Silvanus Uncultivated land  
Sol Indiges?    
Vediovis disappointments/


Roman, numinous
Vulcan smith Greek Hephaistos



Anna Perenna   originally a numen
Aurora dawn  
Bona Dea fertility  
Ceres corn, food crops Italian/Roman
Cloacina purification  
Cybele mother goddess of Phrygia  
Diana hunting Greek Artemis
Diva Angerona   knows Rome's secret name
Eumachia patron of 'fullones' or clothmakers  
Flora flowers, spring  
Fortuna fortune Greek Tyche
Juno Lucita

Juno Sospita

childbirth, women  
Juturna/Juterna springs, streams native to Rome
Latona   Greek Leto
Magna Mater/Cubaba Cybele earth goddess from Pessinus
Marica mother of Latinus, whose dau. Lavinia married Aeneas  
Minerva wisdom arts  
Mormolyce/Mormo cannibal queen who ate children used to threaten naughty children
Ops plenty wife of Saturn
Pietas loyalty, duty, family  
Pomona fruits  
Proserpina daughter of Ceres Greek Persephone
Sangaritis nymph  
Tellus earth, pre Magna Mater  
Ulpicina childbirth  
Venus -

Venus Libitina -

-vegetable fertility, love

-extinction of life force

Vesta hearth numinous, served by six Vestal Virgins
Victoria victory  

Groups of Deities

Di Penates home, store cupboards altar in most homes
Penates Publici orig. belonged to the king, later State solvency  
Parcae fates  
Manes 'good ones' spirits of dead  
Lares Permarini protected sea voyagers  
Lares Praestites watched over state + public  
Lares familiares watched over home + family altar in most homes

winds N Septentrio

NW Corus

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This collection of names compiled by Kate Monk. Copyright January 1997, Kate Monk. Last updated April, 97. Copies may be made for personal use only. home|Onomastikon home