Kate Monk's Onomastikon

(Dictionary of Names)

Anglo-Saxon Rulers

In the Anglo-Saxon period, England was divided into small kingdoms. They are known as the Heptarchy (lit 'rule of seven') as there were usually seven of them although the number varied occasionally due to amalgamations and divisions. They formed a loose confederation under a single king, the most powerful amongst them who was acknowledged as head king or bretwalda and were eventually united under the kings of Wessex.

Bretwaldas (Head Kings) (According to Bede + later historians)

Name Kingdom
Aelle Sussex
Ceawlin Wessex
Aethelbert I Kent
Redwald East Anglia
Edwin Northumbria
Oswald Northumbria
Oswy Northumbria
Offa Mercia
Egbert Wessex

Northumbria and Bernicia

The kingdom of Northumbria, the most northern of the Saxon Heptarchy, was formed when Bernicia and Deira were united. Its most powerful period was during the C7th under Edwin, Oswald and Oswy but it declined after the latter's death and became part of the Viking kingdom of York after the last recorded king, Egbert II, died around 878.


Ida of Bernicia 547-59   Bearnoch
Glappa 559-60 Son of Ida  
Adda 560-8 ''  
Aethelric 568-72 ''  
Theodric 572-9 ''  
Frithuwald 579-85/6 ''  
Hussa 585/6-92/3 ''  
Aethelfrith 593-616 son of Aethelric 1 Bebba
2 Acha daughter of Aelle of Deira
3 ?
Edwin 616-33 Son of Aelle of Deira Aethelburh daughter of Aethelbehrt I Kent
Eanfrith 633-4 Son of Aethelfrith + 1 Pictish princess
St Oswald 634-41 son of Aethelfrith + 2 Cyneburg, daughter of Cynegils of Wessex
Oswy 641-70 Son of Aethelfrith + 3 1 Rhiainfellt of Rheged (Riemmelth)
2 Eanfled of Deira
3 Fina (mistress)
Aethelwald c 651-4 Bernicia nephew of Eanfrith  
Ecgfrith 670-85 Son of Oswy + 2 1 Aethelthryth (Etheldreda) d of Anna of East Anglia
2 Eormenburg
Aldfrith 685-704 Son of Oswy + 3 Cuthburh, sister of Ine of Wessex
Osred I 704-16 Son of Aldfrith  
Coenred 716-8 son of Cuthwine, descendant of Ida  
Osric 718-29 Gs of Oswy  
Ceolwulf 729-37 d 760, a monk brother of Coenred  
Eadbehrt 737-58 d 768 cousin of Ceolwulf  
Oswulf 758-9 son of Eadbehrt Ricthryth
Aethelwald Moll 759-65   Aethelthryth
Alchred 765-74 Desc of Ida of Bernicia Osgyfu d of Oswulf
Aethelred I 774-778/9   2 Aelfflaed, daughter of Offa of Mercia
Aelfwald I 778/9-88 son of Oswulf  
Osred II 788-92 son of Alhred  
Egbert II 876-8    


Ragnald c 919    
Edgar 957 + Eng, Mercia   1 Aethelflead 2 Wulfthryth
3 Aelfthryth of Devon
Thored c 970    
Waltheof -1006 beyond Tees    
Uhtred 1006-16 son of Waltheof 1 Ecgthryth of Durham 2 Sigen 3 Aelfgifu, daughter of Eththelred II of England
Eadwulf 1016 beyond Tees son of Waltheof  
Aldred -1038 son of Uhtred (1st m)  
Eadwulf 1038-41 beyond Tees son of Uhtred (1st m)  
Siward 1041-55   Aelfflaed, daughter of Aldred
Earl Tostig dep 1065 brother of Harold II of England Judith, daughter of Baldwin IV of Flanders
Morcar 1065-6 dep son of Aelfgar of Mercia  
Gospatric 1068 + Dunbar grandson of Uhtred  
Oswulf 1068 beyond Tees son of Eadwulf  
Waltheof 1072-6 (+ H'don) son of Siward Judith, neice of William I of England


Yffe/Yffi -560    
Aelle/Aelli 560-88 son of Yffe  
Edwin   Son of Aelle 1 Cwenburg of Mercia
2 Ethelburga of Kent
Osric 632-3 son of Aelfric, Aelle's brother  
Oswine 644-killed 651 son of Osric  
Ethelwald of Bernicia 651-654 annexed to Bernicia Son of St Oswald  
Ahlfrith 54-664 sub king son of Oswy of Northumbria  
Aelfwine killed 679 sub-king brother Ahlfrith  


This kingdom of the Heptarchy was founded about 527 and annexed to Wessex in 825.

Aescwine C527-87    
Sledda C587-pre604 Son of A Ricula d of Eormenric of Kent
Saebert Pre 604-616/7 Son of Sledda  
Name unknown
616/7 3 sons of Saebert  
Sigebehrt I 'the Little' 617-pre653 Son of Saeward  
Sigebehrt II 'the Good' 653-60 Son of Sexbald bro of Saebert  
Swithhelm 660-5 Bro of Sigebehrt II  
Sebbi +
Bro of Sigebehrt I
Son of Sigebehrt I
St Osyth, dau Frithwold, sub-king of Surrey
Sigeheard +
c695-pre709 Sons of Sebbi  
Offa c 709 abd to be monk Son of Sighere Cyneswith, daughter of Penda of Mercia
Saelred 709-46 Son (gs/ggs?) of Sigebehrt II  
Swithred 746-758+ S of Sigemund, s of Sigeheard  
Sigeric 758+-798 Son of Saelred  
Sigered 798-825 submitted to Egbert of Wessex    


This kingdom in central England between Northumbria and Wessex was founded c 585. It declined after the death of Offa in 796 and was eventually absorbed by Wessex. In 873, King Burhred was driven out by the Danes who settled in East Mercia in 877, leaving West Mercia to Ceolwulf, their puppet king. His reign ended about 883 and Ealdorman Ethelred acknowledged Alfred the Great of Wessex as overlord.

Creoda C585-93    
Pybba 593-c606 Son of Creoda  
Ceorl   Kinsman of P  
Penda 632-54 son of Pybba Cynewise
Peada 654-6 + Mid Ang son of Penda Alhflead, daughter of Oswy of Northumbria
Wulfhere 657-74 Son of Penda Eormenhild/Eormengild d E'behrt of Kent
Aethelred 675-704   Osthryth/Osthryd d Oswy N'bria
Merewala c 700 East Mercia   Eormenburh d E'raed of Kent
Coenred 704-9 abd to be monk son of Wulfhere  
Ceolred 709-16 son of Aethelred Waerburh/Werburg/Werburga
Ethelbald 716-57 Ggs of Pybba  
Beornred 757    
Offa 757-96 Descended from Eawa, son of Pybba Cynethryth
Ecgfrith 796 son of Offa  
Coenwulf 796-821 Descended from Cenwalh, son of Pybba Aelfthryth
Ceolwulf I 821-after 823 Brother of Coenwulf  
Wiglaf 827-40   Aelflead, daughter of Ceolwulf I
Beorhtwulf 840-52    
Burgred/Burhred 852-   Aethelswith, sister of Alfred the Great
Ceolwulf II 873-c83    


Edgar 957 + Eng, N'bria    
Leofwine -c 1023 Ealdorman of Hwicce  
Leofric c 1023-57 earl of M son of Leofwine Godgifu (Lady Godiva)
Aelfgar 1051-7-65 + E Ang son of Leofric Aelfgifu
Edwin 1065-6 d 1071 son of Aelfgar  

East Anglia

The kings of the East Angles were called the Wuffings after Wuffa who probably founded the kingdom. His grandson Redwald is probably the man buried at Sutton Hoo in Suffolk. The last king was St Edmund who was killed by the Danes in 869.

Wuffa 571-8    
Tytila 578-93 Son of Wuffa  
Redwald 593-617 Son of Tytila  
Earpwald 617-627/8 Son of Redwald  
Sigeberht 631-4 abd to be monk Stepson of Redwald  
Ecgric 634-5 Kinsman of Sigebehrt  
Anna C635-654 Son of Eni bro of Redwald Saewara
Aethelhere (Aethelric?) 654 Bro of Anna Hereswith, ggd of Aelle of Deira; sister of Hilda of Whitby
Aethelwold 654-663/4 Bro of Anna  
Ealdwulf (Aldwulf) 663-713 Son of Aethelhere/ric  
Aelfwold (Alfwold) 713-49 Son (or bro) of Ealdwulf  
St Edmund 855-69/70    


Ulfcytel c 1000   Wulfhild, daughter of Eththelred the Unready
Harold 1045 + England and Mercia son of Godwin of Wessex Ealdgyth, daughter of Aelfgar of Mercia
Gyrth 1057-66 died at Hastings brother of Harold  


Before about 449, the founder of the kingdom, Hengest, and his brother, Horsa, were invited to come from Jutland to help the British king, Vortigern, defend himself against the Picts and Scots. The ruling family were called 'Oiscings' after Hengest's son, Oeric Oisc.

Hengest 455-88 Son of Wihtgils  
Aesc (Oeric Oisc) 488-512 Son of Hengest  
Octa 512-40 Son of Aesc  
Eormenric 540-60 Son of Octa  
Aethelbehrt I 560-616 Son of Eormenric Bertha, daughter of Caribert I, King of Paris?
2 name unknown
Eadbald 616-40 son of Aethelbert I 1 stepmother '?'
2 Emma (Ymme) d of Clothacar (Clotaire) King of the Franks
Eorcenberht 640-64 Younger son of Eadbald Seaxburh d Anna of East Anglia
Eormenraed joint king? Elder son of Eadbald Oslafa/Oslava
Egbert I 664-73 son of Eorcenbehrt  
son of Eorcenbehrt
son of Sebbi of Essex
Eadric 674-86 joint king son of Egbert  
Oswini 688-9 joint king    
Wihtred 690-725 son of Egbert 1 Cynegyth
2 Ethelburga
3 Werberga
Aethelbehrt II
Eadbehrt II
Son of Wihtred + 1
Son of Wihtred + 3
Eardwulf c 747-jointly Son of Eadbehrt I  
Egbert II 765-80 Son of Aethelbehrt II  
Ealhmund Fl 784/6 sub king Son of Eafa of Wessex Dau of Aethelbert II?
Eadbehrt II Praen 796-8 Son of Aethelbehrt II  
Cuthred 798-807 bro of Coenwulf + CeolwulfI of Mercia  
Baldred -825 driven out by E III    
Egbert III 825-39 (also Wessex + England) Son of Ealhmund Raedburh/Redburga
Aethelstan 839-51 sub-king + Essex, Surrey, Sussex Son or gs of Egbert III Bro (or uncle) of Alfred the Great  


The kingdom of the West Saxons, founded by Cerdic, expanded to cover most of southern England during the C6th and 7th. Under Egbert (802-39) it also gained control of Northumbria and Mercia. The later kings are also credited as the first kings of all England but Wessex declined after the death of Edgar in 975 and the throne was later lost to Danish invaders.

Cerdic 519-34 Came to Britain c 495 -
Creoda   Son of Cerdic -
Cynric d 560 son of Creoda or Cerdic -
Ceawlin 560-92 son of Cynric -
Ceol 591-7 son of Cutha, brother of Ceawlin -
Ceolwulf 597-611 brother of Ceol -
Cynegils 611-41 son of Ceolwulf or Ceol -
Coenbehrt d 661 sub king grandson of Ceawlin  
Cenwalh 641-72 son of Cynegils Dau Pybba of Mercia
2? Seaxburh
Seaxburh/Sexburga 672-3/4 Widow of Cenwalh  
Cenfus 673/4 Son of Cenferth s of Cuthgils, s of Ceolwulf  
Aescwine 674-6 Son of Cenfus  
Centwine 676-85 Bro of Cenwalh  
Caedwalla 685-8 abd to go to Rome as pilgrim son of Coenbehrt Centhryth
Ine 688-726 abd to go to Rome as pilgrim son of Cenred, desc of Ceawlin Ethelburga
Ethelheard 726-40 Bro of Ethelburga
Desc of Cerdic
Cuthred 740-56 Claimed desc from Cerdic (maybe bro of E)  
Sigebehrt 756-7 dep ''  
Cynewulf 757-86 ''  
Beohrtric 786-802 Bro of Cynewulf? Eadburh, daughter of Offa of Mercia
Egbert 802-39 + England Son of Ealhmund, sub-king in Kent Redburga
Earl Godwine 1018-53 Father of Harold II of England Gytha, daughter of Jarl Thorgils


The kings of Wessex became overlords of all the Saxon kingdoms and were later recognised as kings of all England with the other kingdoms remaining as earldoms. Princes of the royal family were called 'Athelings' because they descended from Aethelwulf.

Aethelwulf 839-58 (England) Son of Egbert 1 Osburga d of Oslac
2 Judith d of Charles the Bald King of The Franks
Aethelbald 858-60 1st s of Aethelwulf + 1 Judith, his stepmother
Aethelbehrt 860-5 2nd s of Aethelwulf + 1  
Aethelred I 865-71 3rd s of Aethelwulf + 1 Wulfthryth
Alfred the Great 871-99 Son of Aethelwulf + 1 Ealhswith d Ethelred Mucil of the Gaini (Mercia)
Edward the Elder 899-924 son of Alfred the Great 1 Ecgwynn/Egwina
2 Aelflead/Elfleda
3 Eadgifu
Athelstan 924-39 son of Edward + 1 dnm
Edmund I 'the Magnificent' 939-46 son of Edward + 3 1 Aelfgifu (St Elfgiva)
2 Aethelflead of Darmerham
Eadred 946-55 son of Edward + 3 Dnm
Eadwig/Edwy 955-59 son of Edmund I + 1 Aelfgifu, his cousin (illegal)
Edgar 'the Peaceful' 959-75 son of Edmund I + 1 1Aethelflead/Ethelfleda d Ordmaer
3 Aelfthryth/Elfrida d of Ordgar of Devon
Edward the Martyr 975-78 son of Edgar + 1 -
Ethelred II the Unready (Redeless - 'lacking counsel') 978-1016 son of Edgar + 2 1 Aelflead (Elfgiva?) of Northumbria
2 Emma dau Richard I of Normandy
Edmund II Ironside 1016 son of Ethelred + 1 Ealdgyth/Edith, widow of Sigeferth s of Earngrim
Canute (Cnut) the Dane 1017-35 son of Sweyn Forkbeard 1 Alfgifu of Northampton
2 Emma of Normandy
Harold I Harefoot 1035-40 2nd son of Canute + 1 dnm
Hardicanute (Harthacnut) 1040-42 Son of Canute + 2 Dnm
Edward the Confessor 1042-66 2nd s of Ethelred II + 2 Edith, sis of Harold II
Harold II 1066 defeated at Hastings by William the Conqueror 2nd son of Godwin of Wessex Ealdgyth d Alfgar of Mercia
Eadgyth Swan-neck

This collection of names was compiled by Kate Monk and is ©1997, Kate Monk.

Copies may be made for personal use only.

tekeli.li home|Onomastikon home